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Look Up: (916 Terms)
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Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. As opposed to SDSL (Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line), an ADSL connection runs through an ordinary phone line and receives data over the internet at high speeds, comparable to those of cable modems, though it transmits data at only a fraction of the speed at which it receives data -- but still faster than a conventional 56Kbps modem.
See Also:SDSL
The reduction in signal strength during transmission over a network. Too much attenuation can render a signal incomprehensible. To solve this networks implement repeaters, and follow the maximum length standards for the medium (cabling) in use.
Refers to a measurement of how many bits can be transfered over a path at once. For instance a pipe may be able to send 16 bits at once which would be called 16 bits of bandwidth.
Bits Per Second. A measurement of speed for transfering information.
Cable Modem
An internet service which transmits data through a thick cable to the consumer; naturally, this means that a lot of data can be transmitted quickly. Though the technology itself has no self-imposed limits -- other than the maximum speed possible for transmission -- cable companies often place maximum speeds on the internet connections, since people generally don't need much upload speed. This is in the best interest of the consumer, because it allows everyone to have fair access to the total amount of speed available to the company.
See Also:Modem
Client / Server
An architecture in which there is a main source of information, the server, and it is accesed when the information is needed by the clients.
A cable specifically used in network situations involving only two computers. By using a crossover-cable there is no need of a network hub, saving you money. Often used in home situations and direct comunication between two network servers. There are two variants: -One using your COM/PARALEL ports. (not recomended: slow) -And one using your Network Interface Card. Check your local suplier for details, a good suplier always has a couple of crossover's on stock.
Electromagnetic interference, usually a near by cable or electronic device, affecting a signal being transmited over a medium network cable. In cases where closely bound cables/devices is unavoidable, shielded cabling is used.
The process of transfering information from a host source to a client. Ex: When you surf the web you are downloading information from web sites.
An abbreviation for "File Transfer Protocol". This is a technology which allows the transfer of files from one computer to another. FTP also allows for limited access to the files on a computer by reequesting a user name and password. Anyone who does not have a password can enter the user name "anonymous" and his e-mail address as a password. But users with special priviliges may have access to files to which the general public does not have access.
FTP site
A computer or website which makes files available for download using File Transfer Protocol.
See Also:FTP
A piece of hardware that connects multiple network connections together, such as computers. Can be active or passive. Sends a brodcast signle to all computers untill a response is received from the destination client.
Internet Protocol
Internetwork Packet Exchange. An unreliable (datagram) protocol introduced by Novell Netware. Complimentary protocol would be SPX.
Internet Relay Chat. A client-server created to allow people to talk to each over a network. The unit runs a IRC client, such as mIRC, and connects to an IRC server and can then talk to other through channels or directly.
The time it takes information to go from one computer to another. Usually it is only refered to when it is noticeably slow. See latency.
Local Area Network. A computer network limited to the immediate area, often connected with Ethernet. It is often supported in multiplayer games.
The time it takes for information to travel. Often measured in the time information can go across a network and return with the "ping" command. Sometimes called lag.
MAC address
Media Access Control address. The address on a piece of hardware, on the MAC layer of the network, that is used to identify a node on a network. This address is unchangable since it resides in the hardware itself.
See Also:Node
A shorter term for "modulator/demodulator". This is a device which takes data from a computer and turns it into a series of audio pulses which can be sent over a telephone line; on the receiving end, these pulses are "demodulated" into a copy of the original data. Modern internet devices like ADSL and cable no longer use this exact type of technology, but the term "modem" has been expanded to include these devices.
See Also:Cable Modem
Multicast Open Shortest Path First. A Multicast Version of OSPF
See Also:OSPF
A group of computers which are connected together through hardware and software.
Network Interface Card. Hardware used to interact through a network. Usually on a LAN.
Any connection in a network with a unique MAC address. This can be, for example, a computer or a printer.
See Also:MAC address
Usually refered to as being on the Internet or using the Internet.
A collaborative effort to develop a robust, commercial-grade, full-featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) protocols as well as a full-strength general purpose cryptography library.
Open Shortest Path First. The OSPF is a (link state) routing protocol used by the Internet community. OSPF is classified as an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), this means that it distributes routing information between routers belonging to a single Autonomous System. OSPF is used over IP. That means that an OSPF packet is transmitted with an IP data packet header. The PROTOCOL field in the IP header is set to 89 for OSPF. OSPF is designated to be run internal to a single Autonomous System. Each OSPF router maintains an identical database describing the Autonomous System's topology. From this database, a routing table is calculated by constructing a shortest path tree. OSPF recalculates routes quickly in the face of topological changes, utilizing a minimum of routing protocol traffic. Separate routes can be calculated for each IP type of service. OSPF allows sets of networks to be grouped together. Such a grouping is called an area and it's topology is hidden from the rest of the Autonomous System. This information hiding enables a significant reduction in routing traffic. An area is a generalization of an IP subnetted network. All OSPF routing protocol exchanges are authenticated. This means that only trusted routers can participate in the AS's routing. Information Source
Point-to-Point-Protocol, used in internet connections.
Device used in networks to regenerate analog and digital signals. Analog signals are simply amplified, while digital signals are nearly reproduced.
A router is a piece of hardware that directs network traffic from one network to the other, and can also act as a firewall.
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line. This is a high-speed internet connection which, like a cable modem, runs at very high speeds. Unlike conventional ADSL (Assymetric Digital Subscriber Line), however, an SDSL connection is "symmetric" -- it receives data just as fast as it sends data, and in both cases, this is very fast. However, SDSL requires its own special line -- whereas ADSL runs through a normal phone line -- and is very expensive.
See Also:ADSL
Sequenced Packet Exchange. A reliable network protocol introduced by Novell Netware. Complimentary protocol would be IPX.
A switch acts like a hub in that it connects multiple network connections, but is "smarter" in that it knows where to send them, it cuts down on broadcasting.
Transmission Control Protocol, is used for reliable packet transfer. Packets are slower in nature as they are always checked and will arrive to the applications in the proper order.
A suite of protocols that is the standard on the Internet. There are 13 protocols overall, including telnet, FTP, TCP, UDP and RDP. See TCP and UDP.
Telnet is a protocol that allows you to connect to remote computers (called hosts) over a TCP/IP network (such as the Internet). You use software called a telnet client on your computer to make a connection; there is a telnet server on the remote host, which the telnet client negotiates with to establish a connection. Once connected, the client becomes a virtual terminal, and allows you to communicate with the host computer from your computer. In most cases, you'll be asked to log into the remote system. This usually requires an account on that system. Occasionally you can log in as guest or public without having an account. Telnet clients are available for all major operating systems.
User Datagram Protocol. An unreliable method of sending packets, UDP is faster but less stable in terms of reliable information than TCP. UDP is often used for faster transmission of data that is not useful at a later time.
The process of transfering information from a client to a host. Ex: When you send a file from your computer to an FTP site.
VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing 'desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. VNC's Website
Wide Area Network. A network that spans a great distance, usually over a public network, such as telephone. WANs are typically 2 or more connected LANs. The Internet is the largest.
See Also:LAN
Windows Sockets. An API for sockets through windows, which provides TCP/IP network programming support.

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